Abstracts Sinologie

Zeitplan

Raum: Kath Theol I, Hochparterre, Johannisstraße 8-10
Tag Zeit    
Mo 13:30-14:00 Panel: Explicatio ex nihilo: Der Umgang mit der Lücke in der philologischen Sinologie
Mo 14:00-14:30
Mo 14:30-15:00
Mo 15:00-16:00 Pause
Mo 16:00-16:30 Panel: Fate, Freedom and Prognostication – Aspects of Research from the Consortium of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg
Mo 16:30-17:00
Mo 17:00-17:30
Mo 17:30-18:00
 
Di 09:00-09:30 Panel: Continuities and Displacements: Histories of Early Chinese Concepts
Di 09:30-10:00
Di 10:00-10:30
Di 10:30-11:30 Pause
Di 11:30-12:00 Lau Sozialgeschichtliche Aspekte in Kriminalfällen der Qin-Dynastie
Di 12:00-12:30 Hu-von Hinüber Faxians (ca. 342-423) Guanyin-Verehrung und das Lotus-Sūtra aus dem Jahr 286
Di 12:30-13:30 Mittagspause
Di 13:30-14:00 Panel: Klassiker in neuem Gewand
Di 14:00-14:30
Di 14:30-15:00
Di 15:00-15:30
Di 15:30-16:30 Pause
Di 16:30-17:00 Terekhov Gaoyao, the Twelfth Sage: The Formation of the Ancient Chinese Twelve Sages Cohort
Di 17:00-17:30 Li The Journey to the Sacred: Qu Yuan and His Epic Poem “Suffering”
Di 17:30-18:00 Pflug Das Schwert des Blütenberges – ein heiliger Raum des Daoismus aus dem Blickwinkel des konfuzianischen Gelehrten Jiang Xiangnan 蔣湘南
 
Mi 09:00-10:00 Idema Animal Epics with Chinese Characteristics
Mi 10:00-10:30 Panel: Argumentationsformen in chinesischer Prosa der Kaiserzeit
Mi 10:30-11:00 Pause
Mi 11:00-11:30 Panel: Argumentationsformen in chinesischer Prosa der Kaiserzeit
Mi 11:30-12:00
Mi 12:00-12:30
 
Do 09:00-09:30 Panel: Silk from the temple – silver from the tomb. – Interdisciplinary studies on Tang dynasty finds from Shaanxi Province
Do 09:30-10:00
Do 10:00-10:30
Do 10:30-11:00 Pause
Do 11:00-11:30 Panel: Silk from the temple – silver from the tomb. – Interdisciplinary studies on Tang dynasty finds from Shaanxi Province
Do 11:30-12:00
Do 12:00-12:30
Do 12:30-13:30 Mittagspause
Do 13:30-14:00 Panel: Arbeitswelten und Arbeitsverhältnisse im kaiserlichen China
Do 14:00-14:30
Do 14:30-15:00
Do 15:00-15:30
Do 15:30-16:00 Pause
Do 16:00-16:30 Jost Quantitative Aspekte der Zementkupferproduktion in China seit der Song-Zeit (960-1279)
Do 16:30-17:00 Hsieh Successive Transformation in Journey to the West: The Possibility of Perfecting the Mind
Do 17:00-17:30 Hahn Dichtung und Wahrheit im zaju-Theater
Do 17:30-18:00 Chi Life and Death of the Xieyi Theatre (Theatre of Essentialism) in China

 

Fr 09:30-10:00 Grimberg Einige Überlegungen zu dem Brief der Kaiserinwitwe Helena/Xiaozheng der Südlichen Ming an Papst Innozenz X. aus dem Jahre 1650 - Abgesagt
Fr 10:00-10:30 Samoylov Contemporary Russian Studies on Chinese Civilization: In Search of New Paradigms
Fr 10:30-11:30 Pause
Fr 11:00-11:30 Strafella China’s Men of Letters and the Borders of Culture: The Motherland and Its Enemies in Contemporary Intellectual Discourse - Abgesagt
Fr 11:30-12:00 Sun, J. Social Origins of Pain and Trauma (1969-2011): A Study on Social Suffering among the Educated Youth Who Were Sent to the Mountainous Areas in North China during the Great Cultural Revolution
Fr 12:00-12:30 Guleva 1947 Constitution in Political Memory of PRC
Fr 12:30-13:30 Mittagspause
Fr 13:30-14:00 Ma Establishing a Strong and Powerful Government – Intellectual Controversy about Popular Power and State Power in Party Struggles betwenn 1912 and 1913 - Abgesagt
Fr 13:30-14:00 Sun, Y. Peking on European Maps (14th -15th Century)
Fr 14:00-14:30 Son Confucian Loyalty and Land: on Class Hierarchy and the Public Sphere during China’s Modernization (1866-1925)
Fr 14:30-15:00 Yu Hu Shi und die chinesische biographische Literatur im 20. Jahrhundert
Fr 15:00-15:30 Kast Wirklichkeitserfahrung im frühen Konfuzianismus: Konfuzius, Menzius - Abgesagt
Raum: Kath Theol II, Hochparterre, Johannisstraße 8-10
Tag Zeit    
Mo 13:30-14:00 Panel: Christianity as a ‘model religion’? Constructing global modernity in China, 1800 to the present
Mo 14:00-14:30
Mo 14:30-15:00
Mo 15:00-15:30 Liu Marriage of Western Culture and Chinese Tradition: A Study on the Shanghai McTyeire School and Zhongguo Nv Xuetang
Mo 15:30-16:00 Pause
Mo 16:00-16:30 Panel: Ideology and practice between Mongol and Chinese traditions: new perspectives on the Yuan Dynasty
Mo 16:30-17:00
Mo 17:00-17:30
Mo 17:30-18:00
 
Di 13:30-14:00 Fiebig Transmitting Islamic knowledge in the Chinese cultural context: Ma Qixi’s (1857-1914) rhyming couplets (duilian)
Di 14:00-14:30 Lee Literati Practices in a Music Method Book in Early Republican China: Yau Hok-chau’s The Essential Book of Strings and Songs (1916)
Di 14:30-15:00 Yan Die Karriere von hochqualifizierten chinesischen Fachkräften in multinationalen Unternehmen und die Herausforderung des Human Resource Managements
Di 15:00-15:30 Xia Discourse, History and Chinese Emigration – an ethnographic study on Qiaoxiang (homelands of overseas Chinese)
 
Do 16:00-16:30 Vampelj Suhadolnik Yin Yang Wuxing Cosmology in Pictorial Material of Han and Wei Jin Tombs with Murals
Do 16:30-17:00 Komissarov / Soloviev

Funeral Sculpture of Medieval China and its influence of the art of Nomadic peoples

Do 17:00-17:30 Lukicheva Der Bildraum in der Zeit des Wandels. (Bildraumausprägung in der chinesischen Gelehrtenmalerei im 17. Jahrhundert) - Abgesagt
Do 17:30-18:00 Koppen Multilocality in China and Vietnam: Decoration and Incorporation

Relevante interdisziplinäre Panels:

‘Diglossic’ situations and their transformation in the modern era: East Asia and beyond

East Asian Islam in the 19th/20th Centuries and its Discovery as a Political Factor

Geschichtsschreibung zwischen Wissenschaft und Ideologie

Image, Artifact and Visual Object: New Perspectives on Jesuit Artistic Legacy in China, 1600-1800

Stiftungen in mittelalterlichen Gesellschaften

 

Abstracts der Einzelvorträge:

Chi, Yumei: Life and Death of the Xieyi Theatre (Theatre of Essentialism) in China

The Chinese Spoken Theatre (Zhongguó Huàj) 中國话劇 arising in the end of 19th century, as a new theatrical experience directly influenced by the Occidental Theatre, has broken a unidimensional frame conducted since millennium by the Chinese Opera (Xìq 曲 戲). However, since 1949, the successive political changes and movements have strongly convulsed the life of the Chinese Spoken Theatre. It was only after the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), that it managed to rise from its ashes, and entered a new phase notably marked by the movement of ‘Work-shop Theatre (Shíyàn Huàjù 驗話劇 實)’ incorporating ‘Xieyi Theatre 寫意話劇’ during the 1980’s. A divergence has then appeared among the artists: the two competing views are “Drama is life?”, or “Drama is drama”. In other words, should the theatre be ‘objective and realist’ or ‘subjective and abstract’?
From 1949 to the 1980s, the theory of STANISLAVSK (1863- 1938), Naturalism (Realism), has enjoyed a role of quasi-monopoly in China. Merely the approach of HUANG Zuolin 黃佐臨, proclaimed in 1962, has contested the monopoly of STANISLAVSKI. It is only in the 1980’s that the approach of HUANG was taken into account. In his approach, HUANG has denoted the relations between the Distancing Effect of Bertold BRECHT (1898-1956) and the Chinese Opera. HUANG has further claimed that the Chinese Spoken Theatre should also draw its inspiration from the Chinese Opera in order to be more suggestive and implicit and to lead the audience to be ‘a consciously critical observer’. Many remarkable Xieyi Theatre plays have been staged: China dream 中國夢”; “WM (We)我們 ”; “Death visits the living 者對生者的訪問 一個死 ”; “Leaves 蕓香”; “Looking for a man 漢 尋找男子”; “Is it love? 初戀時我們不懂愛情”; “The peach blossom land 暗戀桃花源”. Our study aims at analysing the characteristics of the Xieyi Theatre, and understanding the consequences it has had on the Chinese social and artistic life of our contemporary era, despite its disappearance more than two decades ago.

Fiebig, Markus: Transmitting Islamic knowledge in the Chinese cultural context: Ma Qixi’s rhyming couplets (duilian)

In this presentation I explore the way in which Ma Qixi (1857-1914) used the medium of the duilian (rhyming couplet) to transmit a religious and moral message to his community. Ma Qixi was a Chinese Muslim who, in 1907, founded the Xidaotang (Western Hospice), a Chinese-Islamic school and collective. In his duilian Ma, a scholar and teacher, outlined his vision of Islam and provided instructions on how to live as a good Muslim in the social and cultural context of early 20th century Gansu.

The first part of the presentation covers the way in which the language and terminology Ma Qixi used in his duilian show his communicative intention and the degree to which he was influenced by the Han Kitāb. This collection of texts, written by Chinese Muslims between the 16th and 18th centuries, explores Islamic themes using Chinese philosophical terminology – the name Han Kitāb itself, a combination of the Chinese word Han (here signifying China) and the Arabic kitāb (book), suggests the syncretic nature of the texts. The second part of the presentation examines more closely the content of the duilian, focusing on how it reveals the cornerstones of Ma’s vision of Islam: firstly, the compatibility of Islamic belief, knowledge, ritual practice, and spirituality with Chinese culture; and secondly, the connection between self-cultivation, religious knowledge, and spiritual development.

Guleva, Mariia: 1947 Constitution in Political Memory of PRC

Xinhai Revolution and Sun Yatsen’s political theory firmly set China on the track of modernization, but implementing Three People’s Principles took much longer than the theory proposed. The first permanent Constitution drawn up on the basis of Sun Yatsen’s ideas was promulgated as late as 1947 and is often considered to have disappeared from political memory of mainland China due to Civil war and briefness of Kuomintang’s constitutional reforms.

However, it must be admitted that the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China inherited more than mere slogans of democracy from its predecessor. Comparing Chinese Soviet Republic’s 1931 Constitutional Program with 1949 Common Program which worked as an interim Constitution till 1954 one can clearly see that Chinese Communist Party moved from foreign ideology, including class struggle and minor nationalities’ right to found separate governments, to much more China-based New Democracy with close resemblance to Sun Yatsen’s principles of nationalism (seen as national unity) and government by the people. This last point is especially important, because even though Communists rejected the five-branch government theory of their predecessors, they did follow the idea of Political Consultative Conference (PCC), originally the Kuomintang attempt at organized country-wide political discussion. Kuomintang’s period of political tutelage, lasting for over a decade, undoubtedly set standard for one-party rule, but People’s PCC and United front, being fruits of late Republican reforms in mainland China, allowed Communist Party to move from both purely Soviet and Kuomintang models. Democratic United front is still considered a significant part of political system by contemporary PRC leaders.

Hahn: Matthias: Dichtung und Wahrheit im zaju-Theater

Das zaju 雜劇-Theater der Yuan- und Ming-Zeit ist als literarisch vermeintlich minderwertige Literatur lange Zeit wenig beachtet und bearbeitet worden. Dies gilt insbesondere für Stücke außerhalb der Sammlung Yuan qu xuan 元曲選. Am Beispiel von drei Stücken aus der Sammlung Maiwangguan chaojiaoben gujin zaju 脈望館鈔校本古今雜劇 sollen Tendenzen der Geschichtsdarstellung auf der Theaterbühne, Inspirationsquellen der unbekannten Autoren und regelhafte Veränderungen gezeigt werden. Ein Seitenblick soll auch auf die Kostüme fallen, die in bisherigen Bearbeitungen in der Regel unbeachtet blieben. Geschichtlicher Hintergrund der drei Stücke „Han yuanshuai an du Chencang“ 韓元帥暗度陳倉 („Der Oberkommandierende Han durchquert heimlich Chencang“), „Yun jimou Sui He pian Ying Bu“ 運機謀隨何騙英布 („Einen cleveren Trick benutzend legt Sui He den Ying Bu herein“) und „Han gongqing yi jin huan xiang“ 漢公卿衣錦還鄉 („Die Offiziere der Han kehren in Brokat gekleidet in die Heimat zurück“) ist mit dem Bürgerkrieg zum Ende der Qin-Zeit, der zur Gründung der Dynastie Han führte, einer der prägenden Abschnitte der chinesischen Geschichte.

Hsieh, Chiaying: Successive Transformation in Journey to the West: The Possibility of Perfecting the Mind

In A Brief History of Chinese Fiction(中國小說史略), the famous critic Luxun (魯迅) regards Journey to the West (西遊記) as mythological and playful fiction, relocating the value of “searching for the mind lost”(求放心) from the concept of another critic Xie Zhaozhe (謝肇淛), and culminating in the Buddhist possibility of “perfecting the mind”(修心). Also, he finds the mythological elements of the fiction in two of the novel’s chapters containing the magical fights between hero and god or demons. In chapter six, God Erlang (二郎神) transforms himself successively into five animals, fighting with the stubborn hero, Sun Wukong (孫悟空), and subduing him with the assistance of all the gods. It is similar to the fight in the chapter sixty-one, where Bull Demon King (牛魔王) and the hero change their shapes into six creatures and then the former succumbs to the latter with the help of the celestial beings. Although such a possibility is observed, Luxun might ignore the essential relationship between the two chapters. Therefore, our research intends to reconstruct in the two chapters the “successive transformation in magical matches”, and to develop the theme of “perfecting the mind” through a dialectical approach. We would firstly compare the differences of two chapters in the beginning, articulating the concept of “foils” related with the characters and its allegorical meaning, and, afterwards, reaching the idea of “submission”.

Hu-von Hinüber, Haiyan: Faxians (ca. 342-423) Guanyin-Verehrung und das Lotus-Sūtra aus dem Jahr 286

Der chinesische Indienpilger und buddhistische Mönch Fa­xian 法顯 (ca. 342-423) unternahm von 399 bis 412 eine außergewöhnliche Reise in die Heimat des Buddha, um dort nach authentischen Schriften über die buddhistische Or­dens­disziplin (Vi­­­na­­ya 律藏) zu suchen. Von der damaligen chinesischen Hauptstadt Chang’an 長安 aus kam er über Zen­tralasien, das heutige Afghanistan und Pakistan nach Zen­­tralin­dien, wo er unter anderem drei Jahre Sanskrit studierte. Unterwegs besuchte er fast alle bud­dhi­stischen Pil­ger­orte und erwarb eine Reihe von Sanskrit-Texten verschiedener buddhisti­scher Schu­­len. Ins­ge­samt sind es fast 30 Länder, die Faxian in etwa 14 Jahren bereiste. Die Beschreibungen seiner Indienreise und der von ihm be­suchten Länder, meistens buddhistischen, bilden den Haupt­gegen­stand sei­nes berühmten Reiseberich­tes Foguoji 《佛國記》.

Während Faxians Heimreise auf dem Seeweg über Sri Lanka und Su­mātra geriet das große Handels­schiff, auf dem der alte chinesische Mönch gereist ist, zweimal in Seenot. In dieser lebensbedrohlichen Lage betete Faxian zur buddhistischen Gottheit Guanyin 觀音 (Avalokiteśvara) um Schutz und Segen. Der Vortrag geht der Frage nach, welche buddhistischen Schriften dem damals offenbar in China weit verbreiteten Guanyin-Kult zugrunde gelegen haben könnten. Dabei bietet es sich an, an eine frühe chi­ne­sische Übersetzung des Lotus-Sūtras (Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra) zu denken. Zum Vergleich wird auch der Sanskrit-Text des Sūtras herangezogen.

Idema, Wilt:  Animal Epics with Chinese Characteristics

Like other cultures all over the world China is home to many folktales featuring animals as characters. But such tales rarely if ever were adapted in traditional Chinese elite literature, probably because this literature insists on “truth” as its dominant characteristic. In fiction written by elite authors animals usually take on human shape before they are allowed to speak. In traditional popular literature, however, one can find a number of long verse narratives in which speaking animals interact with each other and humans. In this paper I will briefly discuss three stories that were repeatedly adapted in popular literature (the law case of the swallow and the sparrow, the adventures of the filial parrot, and the law case of the mouse and the cat) to demonstrate the longevity, variety and vitality of this tradition.

Jost, Alexander: Quantitative Aspekte der Zementkupferproduktion in China seit der Song-Zeit (960-1279)/ Quantitative Aspects of Wet Copper Production in China since the Song Period (960-1279)

Wet copper production refers to the method of producing copper by precipitation of copper in an aqueous solution on iron. This production method not only allows the exploitation of otherwise exhausted ore deposits by the use of cupreous mine waters, natural vitriol springs or vitriol earth, but also for instance offers the chance to save fuel and to reduce the investment necessary for the establishment of production facilities. While first mentions of this process in Europe and other parts of the world can only be found from the 15th century onward, in China it was already known more than 2000 years ago and extensively used especially during the Song period (960-1279). If the technology was preserved and practised in China to the present day or if it was forgotten and re-imported from the west is still subject to discussion. In this study, so far unused historical sources as well as results of recent field research are employed in order to answer especially questions of quantitative character, such as the efficiency of the methods used during historical times, the size of the respective facilities, labour force and division and so forth. On the one hand it is attempted by doing so to shed light on an interesting chapter within the history of Chinese science and technology including the invention, application, optimization and possible oblivion of the process. On the other hand, this technology was crucial for the execution of monetary policies especially in Song China, to which it was most closely related due to the importance of a stable copper production for the casting of cash coins.

Komissarov, Sergey; Soloviev, Alexander: Funeral Sculpture of Medieval China and its influence of the art of Nomadic peoples

The using of large-scale stone statues with quiet universal meaning for mounting of graves is widely spread all over the world. For clarification of semantic content of sculptural burial constructions the structure of funeral complexes as well as surrounding landscape characteristics are very essential. From this point of view, Chinese complexes of Medieval Epoch reveal close similarity with funeral-ritual relics of nomadic tribes in Siberia and Central Asia.

The rows of stone sculptures (including human images) as the essential part of sepulchral architecture were known from the Late Antiquity as Spirit Path (shendao). The earliest example represents by the Tomb of Ho Qubing (140–117 BC), where some figures treated in the Scythian-Siberian “animal style”. Classical Spirit Paths appeared at the cemeteries of Eastern Han and were used in subsequent periods as the part of elite burials. This custom including its sacral function and connection with social status of the dead was adopted by some “barbarian” tribes. During the Early Medieval Epoch “the barbarians” tried to reproduce the visual characteristics of funeral ensembles of their “civilized” neighbors. Monuments of the Ancient Turks in Mongolia give us good examples of this kind, especially the Tomb of Kyul-tegin with some peculiarities of Chinese funeral tradition that in most developed form presented in complex of Shisanling of Ming Dynasty. Spirit Paths contains also pavilions for rituals including funeral feast. This type of temple buildings can be compared with “stone fences” of nomads, while the rows of s.c. Balbals (stone sculptures) reflect the idea of anthropomorphic figures of Spirit Paths but in the form simplified by traditional “barbaric” ideology.

Koppen, Yasmin: Multilocality in China and Vietnam: Decoration and Incorporation

Concerning the multilocality of sacred spaces in China and Vietnam there are two modes of constructing polysemic meanings: The Longmafutu temple (Henan) shows how changes in religious power affects the official notion and actual practice of a sacred space and how this space, its legends and history are adjusted to topical religious and political demands. In this case an originally Buddhist temple faced severe changes in its own religious identity in the periods of the late 16th century and late 20th century, when it was transformed into a “Neo-Confucian” temple. The spatial realities were warped through normative texts and spatial restructuring in favor of a dominant religion – the “decoration”. It will be analyzed how reality reflects religious and aesthetical concepts while serving the diversity of quite different systems.

Contrasting these developments on the semantic level of decoration are the spatial concepts of Vietnamese sacred spaces. The outset here is different because sacred spaces of Buddhism were not, like in China, distinctively constructed as their own meeting spaces and later temples. Instead Buddhism claimed already existent sacred spaces, shrines and temples intended for other deities. Thus especially localized religious microcosms emerged, where Buddhist or Daoist figures and popular deities, sometimes amalgamated, share one space. However, instead of local domination a widespread incorporation of religious assets for the sake of local and political legitimation occurred.

Lau, Ulrich: Sozialgeschichtliche Aspekte in Kriminalfällen der Qin-Dynastie

Die im Vortrag analysierte Sammlung von Kriminalfällen bildet ein Korpus von juristischen Manuskripten auf Bambus- und Holzleisten aus dem präimperialen Qin (zwischen 232 und 222 v. Chr.), die die Yuelu-Akademie Changsha im Winter 2007 auf dem Antiquitätenmarkt in Hong Kong erworben hat. Eine Edition dieser Sammlung soll im Sommer 2013 veröffentlicht werden.

Die Kriminalfälle aus der Sammlung der Yuelu-Akademie gewähren aufschlussreiche Einblicke in Konfliktfelder der frühchinesischen Gesellschaft während der Entstehungsphase des ersten chinesischen Kaiserreiches. Sie bereichern und korrigieren das im Shiji und der literarischen chinesischen Überlieferung gezeichnete Bild von der Gesellschaft der Qin-Dynastie. Im Fokus dieses Vortrages stehen die soziale Stellung und Lebenswelt lokaler Händler dieser Zeit. Anhand zweier Kriminalfälle werden Familienverhältnisse, Geschäftsgebahren und erbrechtliche Regelungen dieser Händler beleuchtet: Im ersten Fall kommt es zwischen der freigelassenen Privatsklavin eines Händlers, die diesem einen Erben geboren hat, und einem ehemaligen Knecht zum Streit um zwei Immobilien aus dem Nachlass des Händlers. Dem ehemaligen Knecht gelingt es, die Freigelassene mit der Drohung, sie wegen Steuerhinterziehung anzuzeigen, zur Herausgabe der Immobilien zu bewegen. Die Freigelassene hatte versäumt, Geld, das Geschäftspartner dem verstorbenen Händler schuldeten, den lokalen Behörden als zu versteuerndes Vermögen ihres Sohnes anzugeben. Während dieser spezielle Fall der Vermögenssteuer offenbar gesetzlich geregelt ist, sehen sich die zuständigen Behörden außerstande zu beurteilen, welcher der Erbansprüche rechtmäßig ist, und legen den Fall deshalb der höheren Instanz zur Entscheidung vor. Ansprüche, die mehrere Händler auf ein gewerblich genutztes Grundstück geltend machen, führen auch im zweiten der analysierten Fälle zum Konflikt. Die Rolle eines Schiedsrichters kommt dabei der staatlichen Verwaltung zu, die den Händlern einzelne Marktgrundstücke zur Nutzung überlässt, diese aber wieder einziehen kann, um darauf eigene Werkstätten zu errichten. Von besonderem Interesse sind die Versuche der Händler, durch private Absprachen auf die Zuteilung der Grundstücke Einfluss zu nehmen und die staatlichen Reglementierungen zu umgehen. Abschließend soll die Frage erörtert werden, aus welchem Grund Kriminalfälle, in denen Markthändler die Hauptakteure sind, für die Sammlung der Qin-Dynastie ausgewählt worden sind.

Lee, King Chi: Literati Practices in a Music Method Book in Early Republican China: Yau Hok-chau’s The Essential Book of Strings and Songs (1916)

This paper examines The Essential Book of Strings and Songs (絃歌必讀 Jin Go Bit Duk), a method book of Cantonese operatic music published in Hong Kong in 1916. This method book was not only Yau Hok-chau’s (丘鶴儔, 1880–1942) first publication, but indeed one of the earliest of its type dedicated to Cantonese operatic music. Yau included in this book song texts, musical notations, guides to score-reading as well as instructions on instrumental and vocal techniques, and stated explicitly that beginners were his target audience.  

Although the three prefaces reflect literati aspirations and mention traditional literati aesthetics of music, this paper argues that The Essential Book resembles popular compendia and manuals rather than literati publications, for the latter seldom catered to beginners or dwelled on technical aspects. In illustrating this argument, the contents and publication features as well as the context of publication are scrutinized with reference to literati music publications as well as the emergence of popular publications since the late Ming dynasty.

In line with the continuous efforts of intellectuals in Canton to achieve recognition at a national level, the case of this music method book reveals Yau’s efforts to appropriate and elevate Cantonese operatic music, a musical genre seldom deemed as representative of literati music, to a literati level. Thus, a scene of interaction and integration between the “folk” and the “literati” within the music circle of the Cantonese community is depicted, forcing one to elucidate the concepts of “literati music” and “literati publication”.

Li, Wenchi: The Journey to the Sacred: Qu Yuan and His Epic Poem “Suffering”

Qu Yuan (屈原), regarded as a pioneer in Chinese poetry, constructs a specific aesthetics of the “exile literature” (貶謫文學) due to the political adversities he encountered. In one of his fantastic epic poem, “Suffering” (離騷), he denounces the imperial corruption, disregarding an entire “profane” dimension for the sake of a better one; his epic expedition for “searching for the goddesses” (求女) expresses a specific emphasis on what seems to be ideal, immutable, “sacred”. According to Eliade, the profane space is a heterogeneous locus on which we can find “breaks” of “sacredness” – particular places where the space elevates itself, while the temporality changes its internal laws. Indeed, Qu Yuan seems to assume in his life not only the role of a politician and poet, but also of a priest, creating by his work no less than “sacred” openings through such mysterious elements as consecration, conjuration, and by evoking mythological figures. In our hermeneutical effort we would comprehend sacredness through the work of the German Lutheran theologian Rudolf Otto, with a particular emphasis on das Numinose, along with Mircea Eliade’s concept of the “sacred” as being opposed to the profane.

Liu, Xiaoyan: Marriage of Western Culture and Chinese Tradition A Study on the Shanghai McTyeire School and Zhongguo Nv Xuetang

In this paper, the Shanghai McTyeire School (1892-, hereafter McTyeire) is positioned as an enlightening model for Zhongguo Nv Xuetang, (Chinese Girls’ School, 1898-, hereafter Nv Xuetang), the first modern school for Chinese women established by reformist Chinese. McTyeire was established as a mission school, yet its admission was not restricted to Christian girls. Rather than a response to the mission schools’ unrivalled presence in imperial China, the birth of Nv Xuetang exemplified the cooperation between Western missionaries and local Chinese in awakening Chinese society to the importance of women’s education. Sources in the form of newspapers, published writings and correspondences between participants speak of the cooperation between McTyeire and Nv Xuetang. At the same time, writings from Western perspectives suggest that the question of whether to teach Confucianism or Christianity was the main conflict between the Chinese founders and their foreigner supporters at Nv Xuetang. McTyeire was not just an educational institute; rather, it was the embodiment of the collective ambitions of missionary work and the Chinese gentry and bourgeois class. Similarly, Nv Xuetang, regardless of its borrowing of content and forms from McTyeire, did not aim to become a second McTyeire. Instead, women’s education was integrated into the state-building project, and it was one of the solutions that reformist Chinese considered in trying to make China a stronger country. McTyeire and Nv Xuetang provide examples of the marriage of Western culture and Chinese tradition through which reformist Chinese perspectives of Chinese women’s role in the country’s modernization process can be uncovered.

Pflug, Laura: Das Schwert des Blütenberges – ein heiliger Raum des Daoismus aus dem Blickwinkel des konfuzianischen Gelehrten Jiang Xiangnan 蔣湘南

Der Huashan 華山, Heiliger Berg der Himmelsrichtung Westen in der Provinz Shaanxi, als Projektionsfläche unterschiedlicher Ideen ist hier Gegenstand der Untersuchung. Anhand der Bergmonographie Huayue tujing 華嶽圖經 (1851) des Hui-Gelehrten Jiang Xiangnan 蔣湘南 (1796-1854) soll aufgezeigt werden, wie ein sakraler Raum, der eng mit dem Daoismus verbunden ist, mit Symbolen aus dem Bereich des Konfuzianismus überschrieben wird. Als Beispiel dient ein Kapitel der Chronik, das sich dem Fund eines Schwertes aus der Zeit der Westlichen Zhou-Dynastie widmet. Im Jahr 1844 sei in einem Tal auf der Ostseite des Berges Hua der Knochen eines Drachen aufgetaucht, in dem sich das Schwert befand. Dieses soll eines von fünf gewesen sein, das der Zhou-Herrscher Zhao (周昭王) schmieden ließ und – seine Macht mit der der Berge verbindend – auf jeweils einem der fünf Heiligen Berge (wuyue 五嶽) verbarg. Der Ritus, der hier angesprochen wird, ist vor allem aus dem Werk „Aufzeichnungen über früh- und neuzeitliche Schwerter“ (Gujin daojian lu 古今刀劍錄) des Daoisten Tao Hongjing (456-536) bekannt, auf das auch Jiang Xiangnan Bezug nimmt. Mit den kraftvollen Symbolen von Schwert und Drache wird hier, so meine Arbeitsthese, auf die im Konfuzianismus idealisierte Herrschaft der frühen Zhou-Zeit verwiesen. Der Berg Hua wird gleichsam in einen Raum idealer Ordnung eingegliedert, auch wenn Jiang Xiangnan sich dabei auf eine daoistische Quelle stützen muss. Gleichzeitig wird diese Periode der Ordnung und Stabilität der frühen Zhou-Zeit kritisch der zerfallenden Macht der Qing-Dynastie im 19. Jahrhundert gegenübergestellt.

Samoylov, Nikolay: Contemporary Russian Studies on Chinese Civilization: In Search of New Paradigms

Chinese Studies in Russia have a long-standing tradition. The foundations of scholarly research of China were laid in the time of Peter I. During the first stage of its development Russian Oriental studies received a considerable impact from German Orientalists. The first works on Chinese Civilization appeared in Russia in the 19th century. In the Soviet period Russian scholars studied Chinese Society on the basis of Marx’s theory of economic and social structure. Nowadays Russian sinologists endeavour to combine classical methods and traditional attitudes to China with new concepts, ideas and paradigms, to form a new approach towards Chinese civilization transforming scholarly consciousness and setting it free from the old stereotypes. Contemporary Russian studies on Chinese civilization include alongside with studies on political and economic aspects of Chinese history as well as Chinese religious and philosophic systems:

- Studies on specific features of Chinese society and their influence on Chinese culture.

- Study of  Chinese geo-cultural sphere (Pax Sinica),

- Attempts to create a timeline of the history of socio-cultural interaction between China and Western countries and study of Russia’s role in this process.

Another topic which is becoming more and more popular with Russian scholars is “immunity” of autochthonous Chinese culture to alien cultural inclusions. There have been serious discussions among sinologists in Russia how “the mechanism of ethnic immunity” might switch in rejecting foreign cultural insertions. The role of foreign Christian Missionaries, including the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Beijing, in the socio-cultural dialogue with Chinese civilization became a very popular topic among Russian scholars as well. Now discussions about different aspects of Chinese civilization enter a very important stage – a period of creating new paradigms.

Son, G. Kentak: Confucian Loyalty and Land: on Class Hierarchy and the Public Sphere during China’s Modernization (1866-1925)

This paper aims to examine the relationship between class hierarchy and land ownership by exploring its underlying effects on China’s modernization. It argues Confucian loyalty to land served as an ideological fetter imposing geographical immobility by emphasizing the importance of agriculture. Consequently, loyalty deterred the formation of towns and cities as it reinforced regionalism by demonising those who left their native land as traitors. However, the gravest impact of Confucian loyalty was consolidation of two independent spheres of communication – the public and the private with the unitary ideology of loyalty, and its corollary was the delay of the public sphere. With loyalty firmly internalized through Confucian labour ethics and narratives, Chinese peasants became docile and geographically immobile, confined to their native lands. Arable land also represented a space of interest conflict between the ruling class and Chinese peasants as the tenant-peasants were deprived of their autonomy to labour on their own soil. Accordingly, China’s modernization, which was impeded by the delay of the public sphere, was also encumbered by the deprivation of peasants’ land ownership. Tenancy symbolized liminality of the peasants whose geographical immobility and voluntary submission were produced by Confucian loyalty and, at the same time, they were deprived of their independent space of labour and communication. China’s modernization was obstructed due to the two spatial factors; first, loyalty consolidated both private and public spaces of autonomous individuals with its unitary ideology, which delayed the formation of the public sphere; second, class hierarchy demarcated physical boundaries of labouring space by appropriating land ownership.

Sun, Jiawen: Social Origins of Pain and Trauma (1969-2011): A Study on Social Suffering among the Educated Youth Who Were Sent to the Mountainous Areas in North China during the Great Cultural Revolution

Launched in the middle of 1950s and lasting more than 20 years, the social movement “Up to the Mountains, Down to the Countryside”, as one of the biggest social movements since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, has influenced several generations in the country. According to non-governmental statistics, there have been altogether 17 million people involved in this movement. However, over half a century after the first reports of Rusticated Youths, the impacts of the major historical affairs of the Mao era have been slowly, yet deliberately, buried. The expression “educated urban youth” itself has also become a label of that era. As a so-called “Lost Generation” (Generation Perdue, by Michel Bonnin), these educated youths have suffered through the multitude of social transformations since the beginning of the PRC. This research analyses a collection of oral histories of 20 educated urban youths who used to work in the mountainous area of north China, and studies their life-course. This work combines the research methods from body sociology, history and medical anthropology, analyses the way those former Rusticated Youths, all over 60 years of age, live their pain, and discusses about the social production and origin of social trauma. Through exploring the metaphors of pain and disease, a potential model of how somatization appears among the educated youths is established. By borrowing Sakuta Keiichi’s Social Values theory, the author discovers that, beyond the mere expression of their physical suffering, there’s an unspoken petition to recognize the value deprivation of their entire life experience.

Sun, Yanan: Peking on European Maps (14th -15th Century)

This research examines the representations of Peking on old European maps between the 14th and 15th century. Before the great Age of Discovery, the ancient Chinese capital –Peking – had already been known to Europe. A special embodiment of this western knowledge is the map. Besides revealing the beauty of medieval cartographic interpretation, this research also aims to trace the origin of such interpretation. While many other maps can be additionally involved, particular emphasis will be laid on eight maps, viz., the Catalan Atlas (1375), the de Virgia World Map (c.1411-15), the Bianco World Map (1436), the Walsperger World Map (1448), the Borgia Map (1420s or 1450s), the Fra Maura World Map (1457-9), the Germanicus Map (1489 or 1490), and the Leardo World Map (1452 or 1453).

Terekhov, Anton E.: Gaoyao, the Twelfth Sage: The Formation of the Ancient Chinese Twelve Sages Cohort

Classification has always been a cornerstone of Chinese culture. One of the most striking manifestations of this passion for organizing the Universe are the cohorts, in which the Chinese distributed prominent historical figures, thinkers, artists and poets, e.g. Five Emperors (wu di), Three Kings (san wang), Four Princes (si jun), Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (zhulin qixian), Eight Immortals (ba xian) etc. All the more strange is the absence of the conventional cohort for the Sages (sheng ren or simply sheng), who had always been seen as the embodiment of intellectual, moral, and spiritual perfection in Ancient China, but gained a special significance in the Chinese political ideology of the first century AD. Anyway, there are few cohorts of the Sages in Ancient China, but the most stable of them is the Twelve Sages (shi-er sheng) group. The paper is going to explore the origins of this cohort, appealing to the preceding groups such as Seventy-One Sage and Eleven Sages. It will be shown that the finalizing of this cohort was due to Gaoyao, originally a minor mythological figure, alleged Justice Minister of the legendary emperors Yao and Shun. The analysis of the image of Gaoyao and especially of the changes it had underwent in the beginning of the first century AD will constitute the main part of the paper and will result in finding the reasons why he had been included in such a venerable group instead of more merited characters such as Fuxi or Shennong.

Vampelj Suhadolnik, Natasa: YIN YANG WUXING COSMOLOGY IN PICTORIAL MATERIAL OF HAN AND WEI JIN TOMBS WITH MURALS

Since the discovery of the first Han tomb with murals in Henan province in China, in 1916, archaeologists have excavated around 70 tombs with murals dating from the Han dynasty. Although the pictorial material in these tombs reveals differences in the specific topics chosen, as well as the lack of a standard iconographical scheme, a symbolic interpretation confirms the imbuing of these motifs with the theory of yin yang wuxing, which could be perceived as a basic thread in Han mural paintings. The union of yin and yang forces was conceived of as the source of life. In order to represent the functioning of the cosmos and achieve a cosmic balance, thereby overcoming the transitory nature of human life, the embodiment of both forces, manifested in the circulation of the five dynamically interacting cosmic phases, was represented in different ways.

Considering the literary tradition, according to which a reinterpretation of the pictorial materials within the context of their original architectural arrangement was made, the present paper will explore the embodiment of yinyang wuxing cosmology in pictorial design of the Han tombs. It will further try to illuminate the influence of yinyang wuxing cosmology as revealed in Han tombs in the Central Plain upon the Wei and Western Jin tombs` pictorial design in Liaoning and Gansu provinces, while also examining the differences in artistic and cosmological expression present in these tombs, stemming from new trends and developments.

Xia, Cuijun: Discourse, History and Chinese Emigration – an ethnographic study on Qiaoxiang (homelands of overseas Chinese)

The miraculous Qingtian stones have paved the “stone road” for Qingtianese going to the Europe. The Wu Lineage from Wenzhou (Zhejiang Province, China) is one of the small groups who tried to make a living in Europe and successfully developed further chain migration in the early 20th century. The author employs cultural anthropology to focus on the Wu Lineage and their homeland- a famous Qiaoxiang in Wenzhou. Through collecting and analyzing precious written materials, dialogue recordings and videos and interpreting the cultural spaces in the ancestral hall, the ancestral home, the family’s overseas restaurant and home, the fragments of different historic periods are represented: the glories won by successful business in Europe in 1920s; the dilemmas and struggles ensued from the fact that both Kuomintang of China and the Communist Party of China want to win the support of those overseas Chinese; the unpromising lives resulted from “dangerous” overseas relations in the Cultural Revolution; an upsurge of going abroad after the Reform and Opening Up; the returned and reconstructed glories of any material or nonmaterial heritage related to the early and successful immigrant history under the discourse of tourism; and rethinking of future development under the recent Financial Crisis in Europe. In-depth exploration into the Wu Lineage also exposes the discursively constructed discourses of “Zhaozhui” (take in a son-in-law to bear the bride’s family name and live with the bride’s family), family names and blood purity. It does present readers a historic, critical and cultural interpretation of the Wu Lineage- a typical immigrant family in Wenzhou.

Yan, Junchen: Die Karriere von hochqualifizierten chinesischen Mitarbeitern in multinationalen Unternehmen und die Herausforderung für das Human Resource Management

Multinationale Unternehmen (MNU) stellen bei der chinesischen Arbeitsreform einen Katalysator für eine dynamische Beschäftigungsentwicklung dar. Ein häufig aufzufindendes Charakteristikum ‚westlicher‘ MNU in China ist die Implementierung eines modernen Human Resource Managements, welches die Belohnung individueller Arbeitsleistung und die Förderung beruflicher Entwicklung forciert. Dadurch werden diese im Vergleich zu chinesischen Staatsunternehmen mit sozialistisch dominierter Personalverwaltung für hochqualifizierte chinesische Mitarbeiter zunächst äußerst attraktiv. Bis Heute werden in MNU arbeitende hochqualifizierte chinesische Mitarbeiter aufgrund ihres fortgeschrittenen Fachwissens, ihren Auslandserfahrungen und modernen westlichen Orientierungen häufig als Innovatoren des neuen chinesischen wirtschaftlichen Lebens wahrgenommen.

 In den letzten fünf Jahren scheint sich diese Situation jedoch zu ändern. So lässt sich in aktuellen Artikeln in der internationalen Presse vermehrt die Auffassung finden, dass MNU ihr Image als beste Arbeitgeber in China verloren haben. Beispielsweise sagen laut einer Umfrage von Manpower Group sechzig Prozent der Mitarbeiter auf der unteren und mittleren Managementebene, dass sie nun ein chinesisches privates Unternehmen oder staatliches Unternehmen als Arbeitgeber einem ‚westlichen‘ MNU vorziehen würden. Diese Aussage wird durch eine weitere Studie von Corporate Executive Board (CEB) unterstützt. Demgegenüber stehen auf Seiten der ‚westlichen‘ MNU häufig Beschwerden über eine hohe Fluktuation und ein niedriges Commitment der chinesischen Mitarbeiter am Arbeitsplatz.

Dieses deutet auf eine große Diskrepanz zwischen den Karriereaspirationen und Karriereerwartungen der chinesischen Mitarbeiter und den Praktiken der Personalentwicklung in MNU hin. Allerdings wissen wir nicht viel über diese chinesischen Mitarbeiter, und wir wissen kaum etwas über ihre beruflichen Orientierungen und Karrierekonstruktionen. Wie framen hochqualifizierte chinesische Mitarbeiter ihre subjektiven Erfahrungen bezüglich ,Karriere’? Was kann man durch die Erforschung der subjektiven Erfahrungen dieser Mitarbeiter mit ihrer individuellen beruflichen Entwicklung über kulturelle, institutionelle und organisatorische Werte und Prioritäten lernen?

 Mein Beitrag soll auf diese Fragen eingehen. Die empirische Basis stammt aus dem Dissertationsprojekt „Die Karriere chinesischer Führungskräfte im Transformations- und Globalisierungsprozess“, in dem Interviews mit dreißig chinesischen Führungskräften und sogenannten High Potentials in sieben deutschen MNU geführt wurden. Die ersten Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Mangel an institutioneller und kultureller Einbettung von MNU als eine zentrale Ursache für die Diskrepanz zwischen den Karriereerwartungen der chinesischen Mitarbeiter und den Praktiken der Personalentwicklung in MNU gesehen werden kann. Diese an einem postfordistischen orientierten Praktiken der Personalentwicklung in MNU enttäuschen die Karriereerwartungen der chinesischen Mitarbeiter, die sich eher an fordistischen Deutungsmustern orientieren. Daher ist diese Diskrepanz nicht etwa als Versagen des HRM in den MNU zu verstehen, sondern vielmehr Ausdruck einer „Gleichzeitigkeit des Ungleichzeitigen“, die eine fehlende Einbettung der MNU zur Folge hat.

Yu, Hong: Hu Shi und die chinesische biographische Literatur im 20. Jahrhundert

Hu Shi (1891-1962) gehört zu denjenigen Menschen, die schon zu Lebzeiten das Historisieren der eigenen Person erlebt haben. Dies ist zum einen seiner sehr früh gewonnenen Berühmtheit durch die aktive Beteiligung an der epochalen „Literaturrevolution“ zu verdanken, zum anderen seinen zwei Autobiographien: Selbst erzählte 40 Jahre 四十自述 (1933) und Gesprächsaufzeichnungen von Hu Shi über sein Leben 胡適口述自傳 (1981). Ob als Gelehrter oder als Schriftsteller, legt Hu Shi seinerzeit besonderen Wert auf die Biographie, vor allem die Autobiographie, da er in diesem Genre neben der historiographischen und literarischen Werte noch die Erziehungs- und Bildungsfunktion für die Nation sieht. Außer den beiden Autobiographien hat er ca. 100 Biographien, zum großen Teil Kurzbiographien, verfasst. Aufgrund der chinesischen Tradition versucht er unter Hinterzuziehung westlicher Theorien eine neue Art der biographischen Literatur formal wie inhaltlich zu begründen. Ziel des Vortrags ist, anhand von Hu Shis eigenen Werken sein Engagement für das Genre „Autobiographie“ im 20. Jahrhundert soziokulturell und literaturgeschichtlich darzustellen.