Abstracts Koreanistik


Raum: F 102, 1. OG, Fürstenberghaus
Tag Zeit    
Mi 11:00-11:30 Kim Betrachtungen des koreanischen Sprachalltags in Bezug auf die Diglossie-Situation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der gemischten Sprachverwendung - Abgesagt
Mi 11:30-12:00 O-Rauch Ideologie und Menschenrechte in Nordkorea
Mi 12:00-12:30 Schmakova Man of Culture: Concept Transformation in Modern Korea through Fine Art
Mi 12:30-13:00 Vitchenko The government’s role in the printing development in the first half of the Joseon dynasty


Thorsten Traulsen


Relevante interdisziplinäre Panels:

‘Diglossic’ situations and their transformation in the modern era: East Asia and beyond


Abstracts der Einzelvorträge:

O-Rauch, Sang-Yi: Ideologie und Menschenrechte in Nordkorea

Obwohl Nordkorea mit seinem Beitritt zu den Vereinten Nationen 1991 die “Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte” unterzeichnet hat, gehört es seit Jahren zu den Ländern, in denen die schwersten und weitreichendsten Menschenrechtsverletzungen verübt werden. Die von Nordkorea begangenen Menschenrechtsverletzungen sind staatlich institutionalisiert, systematisch und umfassend. Hierzu gehören die Verletzung des Rechts auf Nahrung, Misshandlung in Gefängnissen, der Unterhalt von Lagern für politische Gefangene, Folter und unmenschliche Behandlung, willkürliche Verhaftung, Diskriminierung, Verletzung der Rede-, Bewegungs-, Informations- und Religionsfreiheit, sowie Verstöße gegen das Recht auf Leben. Dies wird seit Jahren von den Vereinten Nationen durch Resolutionen, die Entsendung von Sonderberichterstattern und jüngst die Einrichtung einer Untersuchungskommission durch den UN-Menschenrechtsrat verurteilt.

Menschenrechtsverletzungen werden durch die totalitäre Ideologie legitimiert und dienen der nordkoreanischen Führung zum Machterhalt und zur Durchsetzung innenpolitischer Ziele. Der zunehmende internationale Druck wird von Nordkorea als Einmischung in seine inneren Angelegenheiten und Angriff auf die Souveränität des Landes aufgefasst. Eine angemessene Einschätzung der gegenwärtigen Menschenrechtssituation in Nordkorea setzt ein Verständnis des durch die Ideologie vorgegebenen Menschenrechtskonzepts voraus. In diesem Vortrag sollen die Situation der Menschenrechte und das Menschenrechtskonzept in Nordkorea vor dem Hintergrund der Staatsideologie und des Führerkults beleuchtet werden. Konkret sollen drei Fragenkomplexe behandelt werden: (1) Wie ist die gegenwärtige Menschenrechtssituation in Nordkorea?; (2) Worin besteht das nordkoreanische Menschenrechtskonzept und warum ist es mit der Allgemeinen Erklärung der Menschenrechte unvereinbar?; (3) Was sind die Perspektiven und Möglichkeiten für die Entwicklung von Menschenrechten in Nordkorea?

Schmakova, Anna: Man of Culture: Concept Transformation in Modern Korea through Fine Art

In contemporary scholarship, the “man of culture” term (Korean: munin, Chinese: wenren, Japanese: bunjing) denotes a learned person who embodies the origins of culture. The concept is closely related to the system represented by zither, board games, calligraphy, and painting. These four arts, though slightly changed, used to be the required skills of the Chinese, Korean, and Japanese schorlars’ leisure in the Middle Age. When we determine specific changes for Korea, we include the ancient string instrument komungo playing skills, the baduk checkers gaming skills, fluency of writing techniques, and pictorial art.

The gradual transformation of munin is attested in the second half of the 17th century, and changes seem to continue today within fine arts as the most notable evidence. Upon General Park Chung-hee’s seizing power in 1961, Korea embarked on the restoration of national identity and its peculiar painting. 1970s saw the artistic tendency to work with ink and/or in monochrome style and maintain the depicted in Hangul rather than hieroglyphic inscription. One may say that it is formally recognized as mainstream modernism is South Korea’s visual arts. However, this trend should be seen primarily as a desire of artists to experiment with traditional materials and styles, and not in order to revive traditionalism. They want their painting to move to a newer psychological level, therefore the limitation to certain forms is being dropped.

One of the contemporary manifestations of the transformation is also the emergence of photo art that resembles Korean ink painting. That very search for oneself feels a key part of what “modern” means in the art of South Korea.

Despite the significant fact that scholars’ paintings at the end of the 20th century cease to be amateurish, subtle immaturity is still perceived as a role model.

Vitchenko, Mariya: The government’s role in the printing development in the first half of the Joseon dynasty

The history of printing in Korea is very specific and has deep roots. It dates back to the Goryeo epoch (918 – 1392), but its flowering occurs in the first half of Joseon Dynasty, with 1392 to 1592, i.e. before the Imjin War, which slowed down the development of the national culture.

Public authorities in Korea very quickly realized the benefits of typography and have done a lot for its support and development. Such vigilant impact has also allowed control published books, almost without allowing technology into the hands of private individuals. This situation had its pros and cons, but in this case we consider the situation where the administration, often in the face of Wang, support printing at the state level in the first half of the Joseon Dynasty. Moreover, there are many examples, we mention only a few. 

The Joseon Dynasty was founded by General Lee Seong-gye. He made history as the Wang Taejo (1392 – 1390). His desire to establish a new national policy implemented with the need to publish a number of books.

The next Wang, Taejon, in 1403 restored the national foundry, which was engaged in manufacturing of movable metal type. Recovery was due to the lack of Confucian books for students, that fact was reflected in the royal chronicles. The cost of printing should not lie down by tax burden on the people, Wang, his family and his ministry would be support printing by money, said the decree. 

During the period from 1403 to 1544 total 11 royal decrees directly relating to the new fonts were came out. In times of shortage of the metal by the administration orders the temple’s personal property was withdrawn and melted to continue printing in any way. 

Joseon authorities understood perfectly well how important the typography to fill civil service jobs with properly trained staff. The peculiarity of the printing press in Korea was that it served the aims of the state and controlled by the administration at all stages, becoming a tool for strengthening the dynasty.